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Water Shortage in agriculture will effects long term

If 80% water consumption in India is for agriculture, why is it unregulated and inefficient?

WATER CONSERVATION-
During the 2011 census, India entered the league of water deficient nations. A nation is considered water deficient if the per capita availability falls below 1700 cubic meters per person. The per capita water availability that fell by 15% during the first decade of this century to 1545 cubic meters per person,  will be below 1400 cubic meters per person this summer. Though the rate of depletion has reduced in the last few years, we are still consuming much more than is being replenished by nature. And therein lies the danger. We will be leaving a troubled legacy for the next generation unless we take quick remedial actions to reverse the trend.

As per the Central Water Commission,  85.3% of the total water consumed was for agriculture in the year 2000. This is likely to decrease to 83.3% by 2025. India does not spend any money in conserving water consumed in agriculture. Surprisingly, water conservation takes place in the industry and utility sectors, both of which consume less than 5% of the nation's water.

Desert nations have cut down farm water consumption -

It is not that solutions are not available. Water deficient desert nations like Israel, living under extreme climatic conditions, are today water surplus. Though everybody feels that it's giant desalination plants that have brought about the reversal, that is only part of the story. In 2008, the West Asia nation living along the ‘Fertile Crescent’ was facing a decade long drought. At that time, Israel realized that the water withdrawals for its farmlands were unusually high. The water level at its largest freshwater lake, the Sea of Galilee, inched higher than the black line. If it fell below that mark, irreversible salt infiltration would flood the lake and ruin the fresh water source for ever. Israel imposed a year of unpopular but necessary water rationing and most farmers living in that fertile belt lost a year of crops. This had its political ramifications. But a massive ad campaign across Israel was conducted explaining to people how the water crisis was affecting the nation and how it would be tackled. This was followed by a nationwide education campaign.

India needs to change both recycling and farm water supply policy -

To reduce the water crisis in India, we need to change both our recycling as well as supply mode. Integrating recycling water into agriculture supply will solve two major problems.

75% of water pollution from domestic waste is today discharged untreated into local water bodies and rivers. This amounts to around 40,000 million liters per day MLD from its 300 odd cities. Irrigation with waste water may cost less because of lower purification levels and also because crops serve as bio- filters and waste water contains nutrients. At the same time, the water must remove the toxicity that is harmful.

Advantages of Modern Technology in Agriculture:-

Modern machines can reduce efforts of farmers.
It can reduce production time.
It is used to supply water to the crops.
Machines are useful for sowing the seeds.
It is chemical pest control.
Improves fertility of the soil.
Increase the price and demand of the products. 

Advantages of the agricultural revolution-
The Agricultural Revolution brought about experimentation with new crops and new methods of crop rotation.  These new farming techniques gave soil time to replenish nutrients leading to stronger crops and better agricultural output. Advancements in irrigation and drainage further increased productivity.

Long term effects of the agricultural revolution-
Immediate effects included increased crop yields, more efficient farming, and decreased demand for farm laborers.  Long-term effects included population growth and migration of workers to cities.

How much water is used in agriculture-
Use of water in food and agriculture. Food and agriculture are the largest consumers of water, requiring one hundred times more than we use for personal needs. Up to 70 % of the water we take from rivers and groundwater goes into , about 10% is used in domestic applications and 20% in industry.

Water quality important for agriculture-
Agricultural water is water that is used to grow fresh produce and sustain livestock.  A decrease in applied water can cause production and yield to decrease. Management strategies are the most important way to improve agricultural water use and maintain optimal production and yield.

Role of water pricing and water allocation in agriculture-
About 70% of water supplies worldwide go to food production. Industry uses 23% and cities use about 7% of water supplies. In the western United States, for example, about 85% of the water supplies are currently used by farming operations at government-subsidized rates. Cities and industry, as well as populations of fish and wildlife, split the remaining 15%. Some politicians and environmentalists consider this division unfair and assert that water allocation should be controlled by environmental awareness. They suggest seeking new ways of getting more water to more people while protecting wildlife and wetlands.

How does water affect agriculture-
Agricultural practices may also have negative impacts on water quality. Improper agricultural methods may raising concentrations of nutrients and sediment loads. Increased nutrient loading from animal waste can lead to eutrophication of water bodies which may eventually damage aquatic ecosystems.

Benefits of Groundwater Irrigation-
 Provides cropping intensification & diversification On-demand irrigation (high water productivity) Secures production during prolonged dry spells Pro-poor; makes irrigation democratic,spatially & supports supports private private enterprisee.

Water scarcity leading farmers to suicide-
The scarcity of water in India is leading to many problems. Farmers are unable to manage their crop cycles due to unavailability of water, both surface and groundwater. Pollution of water sources, which is on the rise, is also leading to water scarcity in several parts of the country.

What are agricultural sources of water? 
Groundwater sources: These include deep wells, shallow wells, boreholes, and tube wells.
2 Surface water sources: Nearby lakes, rivers, streams and streams.
3 Natural irrigation from rainfall and other forms of precipitation.

initiatives are taken by the government of india for agriculture-
Soil Health Card Scheme.
National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
Neem Coated Urea (NCU)
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) 
Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)

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