Why Agriculture Innovation Required in India
Innovations are fast changing the agricultural landscape by the increasing need to shift towards able to be maintained certain rate or level without sacrificing the productivity and profitability of farming. Innovations in technology, institutions, processes, and products have contributed to the growth of agriculture, globally and in developing countries including India and Africa, as observed in the cases of green revolution in garins. More recently, innovations in farm mechanization, micro irrigation, digital technology driven farm and crop management.
Innovations in seed technology, farming practices, harvesting, transportation and storage, value addition, packaging, and marketing will all come together in delivering significant results in terms of improving the availability as well as affordability of commodities. With the increasing impact of climate change in terms of rising temperatures and erratic rainfall patterns, innovations in seed technology will be important in delivering heat and drought tolerant seeds. Environmentally sustainable agricultural practices will need limiting over use of pesticides and fertilizers.
PRECISION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED FARM MANAGEMENT:-
Future farms will require precision management enabled by high end automation driven by robots, drones, etc. ranging from drip irrigation, fertigation combining fertilization with drip irrigation, to use of seeds determined by soil type and other conditions. Adoption of such technologies will create an ecosystem for developers; designers, and entrepreneurs in agriculture.
INNOVATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PRODUCTS:
Green Revolution :
The journey from Green to Gene revolution in agriculture has helped South Asian countries to progress out of food aid/import dependencies and secure food availability for their people as well as export surplus in certain cases. Innovations in seed technology to enhance crop productivity, improve resilience of crops to weather shocks and pest attacks, optimize use of soil, water and energy has immensely benefited farmers, globally, through savings in costs of production, increased production and higher income.
Green To Gene Revolution :
The journey from Green to Gene revolution in agriculture has helped South Asian countries to progress out of food aid/import dependencies and secure food availability for their people as well as export oeverplus in certain cases. Innovations in seed technology to enhance crop productivity, improve resilience of crops to weather shocks and pest attacks, optimize use of soil, water and energy has immensely benefited farmers, globally, through savings in costs of production, increased production and higher incomes.
Bt cotton revolution in India:-
The success of Bt cotton in India lies in the fact that cotton production increased from 14 million bales (of 170 kgs) between 2000-01 to 35.1 million bales in 2016-17 and yield increased from 278 kg per hectares to 568 kg per hectare during the same period.
The economic and environmental benefits of adopting Btcotton in terms of higher net incomes, facilitating access to food and nutrition and reduction in use of pesticides and chemicals have been well studied. Controlling for other factors, adoption of GM cotton significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes andreduced food insecurity by 15–20 percent among cotton-producing households (Qaim and Kouser 2013). Between 2002 and 2008, Bt technology resulted in 24 percent increase in cotton yield per acre through reduced pest damage and 50 percent gain in cotton profit among smallholders (Kathage and Qaim 2012).
Biofortification For Improved Nutritional Security:-
Technology breakthrough in staples like rice, pulses, maize, soybean, vegetables, etc will be critical in addressing both food and nutrition security, globally. Considering the burden of malnourishment and severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies in population, of which children account for a significant share, increasing availability of biofortified foods can be effective. Biofortification aims at preventing micronutrient deficiency that is sustainable and scalable. Current estimates suggest that biofortified foods reach more than 15 million people in focus countries in Africa and Asia. Cumulatively, more than 100 biofortified varieties across 10 crops have been released in 30 countries, where second and third waves of even higher nutrient lines are being tested for future release. Candidate biofortified varieties across 12 crops are being evaluated for release in an additional 25 countries (HarvestPlus 2015). The goal is to reach 100 million people with biofortified nutritious foods by 2020 and one billion people with biofortified foods by 2030 (HarvestPlus n.d.). There are examples demonstrating the potential of biofortified staples in addressing malnutrition, production of which need to be commercialized and scaled up to tackle the challenge of such a tall order. Countries like India, and Sub Saharan Africa can benefit the mostgiven the burden of malnourished children and women. Foods like iron rich pearl millet and beans; Vitamin A rich cassava, orange sweet potato; and zinc rich rice, wheat and maize are already approved for commercial production in a number of countries. Vitamin A rich GM rice (i.e., golden rice), which has been embroiled in controversy, too has the potential to solve the global nutrition challenge.
There are many emerging agriculture technologies:
1.Soil and Water Sensors.
1. Biotechnological interventions
The invention of GMOs and other technology in agriculture is increasing day by day which is leading to the massive input of new technologies which needs to be watched and kept eye on. This continuous review of new inventions in the field of technology will no doubt pave the way to progress.
The new techniques like Artificial intelligence has brought so much convenience in the field that it has now become so easy to predict the pest infection in your crop very early. Number of apps have been developed which no doubt enhance the way of living of our farming community.
3.Regulations in the use of pesticides
It should be followed at any cost to get an effective result in the fields and thus saving the population from maleffects of these chemicals.