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Why Agriculture Innovation Required in India

 Innovations  are  fast  changing  the  agricultural landscape by the  increasing need  to  shift towards  able to be maintained certain rate or level  without  sacrificing the productivity and profitability of  farming. Innovations in technology,  institutions,  processes,  and  products  have  contributed  to  the  growth  of agriculture, globally and in developing countries including India and Africa, as observed in the cases of  green  revolution in garins. More  recently,  innovations  in  farm mechanization,  micro  irrigation,  digital  technology  driven  farm  and  crop  management.

Innovations  in  seed  technology,    farming  practices,  harvesting,  transportation  and storage, value addition,  packaging,  and  marketing  will  all come together in  delivering  significant results  in  terms  of  improving  the availability  as  well  as  affordability of commodities.  With  the increasing impact of  climate  change in terms of  rising  temperatures  and  erratic  rainfall  patterns, innovations in seed technology  will  be  important  in  delivering  heat  and drought tolerant seeds. Environmentally sustainable agricultural  practices  will  need  limiting  over  use  of  pesticides  and fertilizers.

PRECISION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVED FARM MANAGEMENT:-

Future  farms  will  require  precision  management  enabled  by  high  end  automation driven  by  robots, drones, etc. ranging from drip irrigation, fertigation combining fertilization with drip irrigation, to use of seeds  determined  by  soil  type  and  other  conditions.  Adoption  of such  technologies  will  create  an ecosystem for developers; designers, and entrepreneurs in agriculture.

INNOVATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PRODUCTS:

Green Revolution :

The journey  from  Green  to  Gene  revolution  in  agriculture  has  helped  South  Asian  countries  to progress out of food aid/import dependencies and secure food availability for their people as well as export surplus in certain cases. Innovations in seed technology to enhance crop productivity, improve resilience  of  crops  to  weather  shocks  and  pest  attacks,  optimize  use  of  soil,  water  and  energy  has immensely benefited farmers, globally, through savings in costs of production, increased production and higher income.

Green To Gene Revolution :

The  journey  from  Green  to  Gene  revolution  in  agriculture  has  helped  South  Asian  countries  to progress out of food aid/import dependencies and secure food availability for their people as well as export oeverplus in certain cases. Innovations in seed technology to enhance crop productivity, improve resilience  of  crops  to  weather  shocks  and  pest  attacks,  optimize  use  of  soil,  water  and  energy  has immensely benefited farmers, globally, through savings in costs of production, increased production and higher incomes.

Bt cotton revolution in India:-

The  success  of  Bt  cotton  in  India  lies  in  the  fact  that  cotton  production  increased  from  14  million bales (of 170 kgs) between 2000-01 to 35.1 million bales in 2016-17 and yield increased from 278 kg per  hectares  to  568  kg  per  hectare  during  the  same  period.

The economic and environmental benefits of adopting Btcotton in terms of higher net incomes, facilitating access to food and nutrition and reduction in use  of pesticides  and chemicals have been well  studied.  Controlling for other  factors,  adoption  of  GM cotton significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality,   resulting from increased family   incomes andreduced food insecurity by 15–20 percent among cotton-producing households (Qaim and Kouser 2013). Between 2002  and  2008, Bt technology resulted  in  24 percent increase in cotton yield per  acre  through reduced pest damage and 50  percent  gain in cotton profit among smallholders (Kathage  and  Qaim 2012). 

Biofortification For Improved Nutritional Security:-

Technology breakthrough  in staples like rice, pulses,  maize, soybean, vegetables, etc will  be critical in addressing both food and nutrition security,  globally.  Considering  the  burden of malnourishment and severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies in population, of which children account for a significant share, increasing   availability of biofortified foods   can be effective. Biofortification aims at preventing micronutrient deficiency that is sustainable and  scalable.  Current estimates suggest that  biofortified foods reach more than 15 million people in focus countries in Africa and Asia. Cumulatively, more than 100 biofortified varieties across 10 crops have been released in 30 countries, where second and third waves of even higher nutrient lines are being tested for future release. Candidate biofortified varieties across  12  crops  are being evaluated for release in an additional 25  countries  (HarvestPlus  2015). The goal is to reach 100 million people with biofortified nutritious foods by 2020 and one billion people with biofortified foods by 2030 (HarvestPlus n.d.). There are examples demonstrating the potential of biofortified staples in addressing malnutrition,  production of which need to be commercialized and scaled up to tackle the challenge of such a tall order. Countries like India, and Sub Saharan Africa can benefit the mostgiven  the burden of malnourished children and women.  Foods like iron rich pearl millet and beans; Vitamin A rich cassava, orange sweet potato; and zinc rich rice, wheat and maize are already approved for commercial production in  a number of countries.  Vitamin  A  rich  GM  rice  (i.e., golden rice),  which has been embroiled in controversy,  too  has the potential to solve the global nutrition challenge. 

There are many emerging agriculture technologies:

 1.Soil and Water Sensors.

2.Weather Tracking.

3.Satellite Imaging

4.Pervasive Automation.

5.Minichromosomal Technology

6.RFID Technology.

7.Vertical Farming.

8.Final Thoughts.

Agriculture Trends-:

1. Biotechnological interventions

The invention of GMOs and other technology in agriculture is increasing day by day which is leading to the massive input of new technologies which needs to be watched and kept eye on. This continuous review of new inventions in the field of technology will no doubt pave the way to progress. 

2.Technological changes

The new techniques like Artificial intelligence has brought so much convenience in the field that it has now become so easy to predict the pest infection in your crop very early. Number of apps have been developed which no doubt enhance the way of living of our farming community.

3.Regulations in the use of pesticides

It should be followed at any cost to get an effective result in the fields and thus saving the population from maleffects of these chemicals.